SC1 – Chinese Documents on Trade Regulations with the English

Within our Special Collections are a set of three documents written in Chinese dating to the early nineteenth century. These have been catalogued on to Archives Hub. But this has only been possible due to the work of Dr Fu Yang who translated the documents into modern Chinese and then provided English abstracts. These are provided below.

SC1/1

 

Negotiations for the language (terminologies) to be used between foreign traders and the Qing government. Generally,  foreigners do not know Chinese perfectly but based on a meeting we had with Mr. John Fullerton Elphinstone (1778-1854) today, they would like to learn to speak and write Chinese, therefore, we should follow up inquiries from foreigners and allow them to do so. Their official letters should be sealed with the foreign company’s chop.

On matters of local official letters where the words man and yi were used, whether these two words convey meanings of scorn and insult.

I checked:  man and yi are two words in the title for all foreign countries. In the south they are called man and in the west they are called yi which is the same as the people living in the central plains called Han [Chinese].  It is the only term [used] for a title, which do not [contain] scorn and insult meanings any longer. Macau belongs with Xiangshan province, people come from different countries to trade there.  Local officers are in charge of negotiations for different matters. They should [pay attention to] words or sentences which cause delay of trade.

[On the matter of] local officers should inform [any] action before the arrival [of these foreign traders].

I have checked: [the reason] local officers went to check factories to prevent criminals from the central plains [trading]. [On the matter of] delaying foreign trade should not be [because of] questioning. [Local officers] also claimed they give notice before acting [which is] for the convenience between Chinese officers and foreign traders. The searching by local officers did not interrupt foreign trade in fact. [In this case, if] local officers willing to check [foreign trade in future] please do fellow the details [of official notice sent to foreign traders which] would be helpful to give notice [to foreign traders] in advance.

[On the matter of] could police officer stop sampan drives by foreign traders to customs.

I have checked: since [Qing government] allowed foreign trade [in China] [also authorized] [their sampan] return to customs in case of any inquiry. Police officers check [that] the boats travelling in and out comply with customs policy. [We should] check and compare this case to old policy to avoid trouble.

[On the matter of] a foreign bushiness coming to Canton [who are] required to employ local people as porters [and] guards, [there are] hundreds of people [which would be] employed. If foreign traders [only] employ foreign [labours] this may cause problems with local labours.

I have checked: The Thirteen Factories and Macau companies usually employ porters, guards, servants, cooks and buyers which are essential and could increase. [We should] based on the policy of allowing the employment [of locals]. The only exception is a personal assistant.  Shawen is not included in this regulation which should be rejected based on the old regulation.

[On the matter of] These escort ships and warships moored in chuanbi xiaoyi lingding [and] jijing waters (ports) [which are] based [there] for the purpose of catching the wind [for departure], please apply old regulation authorising compradors[1] [to these ships].

I have checked: There are specific bays for the mooring of these escort ships which accompany trading ships to Canton. On the third month of tenth years of Jiaqin reign (April 1798) the local leader and Governor-General Viceroy orders were reported and recorded [this matter]. [Therefore] we should refer to the old regulation in dealing [with this matter]. [However] if the escort ship arrived with the cargo ship they should depart with cargo ship.

After a cargo ship has left [port], inspection of the ship on the high seas[2] may cause protest from other foreign traders. [We should] according to regulation, allow authorised British ships as escort ship to come in and go out with cargo ship. Before [British] cargo ships leave, [we could] authorise a comprador. Based on the old [version] regulation, if a cargo ship has already left [Qing border], these inspection ships cannot stay on the high seas.

[On the matter of] [When British] cargo ships moor in territorial waters [and] escort ships remain on the high seas [that] require a sampan[3] to communicate [with each other], the policy is to not stop [sampan] please.

I have checked: sampan used by guard ships or sampans used by cargo ships are difficult to distinguish from one another.  Only way is to search for any contraband or illegal goods  carried by the sampan. In future, when British cargo ships arrive into territorial waters, if [they need to use] a sampan to deliver a message, the sampans staying in territorial waters should go to Provincial Hall or Huangpu Hall to report and check; the sampan staying on the high seas should go to Hengdang Taxations Hall to report and check. If the sampan do not have weapons nor smuggled goods then Taxations Hall should authorize a pass. The Qing warship [and] artillery battery nearby should let sampan pass and not stop them. If the sampan is carrying violation things then [Qing government] should reject the authorization pass.

[On the matter of] A few days ago, a Hong Kong cargo ship [which had] already received a red pass [which allowed them to depart to the high seas], however [our] warship opened fire [on the Hong Kong cargo ship]. Please make a regulation to avoid this in future.

I have checked: [when] a cargo ship receives a red pass [to go through] [it means the cargo ship] should not be stopped [for any reasons]. [In general, after] a cargo ship has been to the taxation department to report, then the taxation department should notify the artillery battery which [specific] cargo ship is authorised to go to the high sea. The Taxation department should [also] notify the soldiers [who] work at the artillery battery. This would avoid miscommunication between each other.

[On the matter of] the United States and Britain having trouble with each other, if a British cargo ship can be looted by American. Please stop Americans selling the looted British goods.

I checked: cargo ships of different nationalities coming to Canton should bring the authorized certificates from their country. When ships arrive in Wanshan, the inspector should check and examine the ship and its cargo.  After confirming the sources of the goods, the ships should go to Macau to report arrival, then leave to Humen to check and report, [at last] arriving in  Huangpu. It is an old regulation which had been followed for a long period. Through inspection, if it is a cargo ship and authorized by their country, [which] can be confirmed, [we should] not make any trouble that could cause problems. That does not relate to the special care rules from our great emperor. We should deal with this matter based on old regulation.

We are not sure on the matter of whether or not there are arguments between foreign countries. We should not in future discuss. I, Fu and Pang explained all the details above to George Thomas Staunton. All foreign heads fully understand and thanked us for  the explanations [to them]. [All foreign traders] are waiting for future instruction. The trade between China and foreign countries [has been for a] long period, in my opinion, it is impossible not to check the old regulations, [however] the old regulation needs to change when [we face a new] situation. There are some other things to inquire about and to report by end of this letter:

District magistrate ordered:

[On the matter of] the British report written in Chinese with special care for our great emperor, for convenient purpose, we shall allow [British business reports to be] written in English? [On the matter of] British business confidential reports are important. These general reports should please be delivered to the closest office. All foreign business coming to Canton shall be managed by Customs.  If the business is related to a different region, the business in Macau is managed by the Xiangshan province; the one in Huangpu is managed by Fanyu and Jiaotang to check, inspection or management should be done in the most convenient way.

Only British cargo ships have escort ships [Royal Naval escorts] which can be checked by [Chinese] artillery battery and warships at any time. Their sampans should report to Taxation Hall [upon arrival], then authorised to pass. We should treat this foreign business with respect. British senior business executive Mr. John Fullerton Elphinstone is authorised by the King of Great Britain. All the reports from him should be treated in the same way as reports from inland, [you] should not show [special] favour [for him]. All foreign business reports should be judged to see [whether] the matter is worth reporting or not, but not if the cargo hold has been opened. Even if there is a delay, it is their responsibility. [We] should not investigate. By doing it this way, the complaints could stop.

[One the matter of] people who have had offence from inland areas which is not related with foreign trade but circulate rumours which easily agitate. If the [legal] case is related to foreigners [we] should receive an official letter. Then the foreign trader will deal the legalities; if there is no official letter then it means the legal case is not related to foreign trade and foreign traders should not ask.

 

廣州知府楊,佛岡同知福:

督同南海縣知縣龔 谨 禀

大人閣下敬禀者,案照夷商英吉利,大班益花臣等禀,求委员面禀事宜轉禀:

大憲飭遵一案奉

憲台,督憲,飭委,卑府等會同前往,詢明情由,妥議禀覆,等因,奉此遵,即會同前往詢问。據熟悉漢音之嘶噹東面述事宜,並呈出益花臣等聯名禀单,一扣内開一。伊等辦理貿易事務,譯禀最為紧要,如遇事,递禀若用夷字,恐致譯错悮事。雖遠人未曾十分熟漢文,尚可畧(略)明大意。求:諭知各地方官行商,不必預先問何事或别様推辭等因。卑府等伏查内地禀事,悉用漢文缮寫事由。本係:

盛世同文之義,因外夷不識漢字是以准用夷字。係属格外體恤。今據該夷商等情願學写漢字,似于書同文之義尚無防碍,即向来夷禀亦多用漢文。應請俯順夷情,准其禀事時書寫漢文。将所禀之事,明白聲叙,不得潦草違悮。密封盖用公司圗章交洋商代递。不必照夷字禀帖。先問事由,倘所禀事理可行,照例批發移咨

闗部轉飭照如事理辦,行或字句違悮,照例駁飭。悉聴憲裁似屬簡便,免致下情不能上通。

 

一地方官行用文書,諭内用蠻夷等事似有輕侮之意等因。

卑府等伏查: 蠻夷二字係外國統稱,在南曰蠻,在西曰夷,猶内地民人曰漢人。祗係稱呼並無輕侮之意。况奧門係香山縣,地方各國夷人往来貿易,遇有交涉事務不能不由地方官查考。豈可推敲字句致碍辦公?應請毋庸議。

 

一地方官,若有事至行,請先為通知等因。

卑府等伏查:地方官赴行查察係為防範内地匪民,應有擾累外夷之事,本無可疑,但稱,先為通知,亦属两便,並無窒碍。應請嗣後地方官有事,赴行准如所禀。先為通知似更周密。

 

一公司船户有事,駕三板来往闗口,巡役請無攔截等因。

卑府等伏查: 夷船既准貿易,自應准其遇事往来闗口,巡役查看往来船隻事蒞闗部,應請移咨查照舊章辦理,免滋紛擾。

 

一遠商来粤,貿易湏用民人為挑夫、守門,所用不下数百丁。若用夷人,恐舆小民争執等因。

卑府等伏查:十三行及澳門公司館向来僱用挑夫、守門、烧茶、煮飯、買物等項人等,均属不可少。應請照舊章准其僱用。惟跟班沙文向例並未准行,应請照舊章禁止一歴。

 

来護送貨船、来粤之战戰船,在川鼻、校椅、零丁、雞頸、等洋面灣泊。因乘風時之便,難常在一處,請照常給買辦等因。

卑府等伏查:巡船護送貨船往来粤省,向有一定灣泊地方。業于嘉庆十年三月。經 前憲,前督憲 那 具奏在案。自應照舊章辦理。但護送貨来,即當護送貨往。若貨船已经囬国,巡船即不得逗遛外洋,致啟他國夷商口實。應請嗣後英吉利巡船准令,照舊護送貨船往来。貨船未經囬國以前,准其給舆買辦。若货船已經囬國,巡船即不得逗遛外洋,以符舊例。

 

一貨船在内,巡船在外,少不得以三板来往相通。求禁止闗口師船攔截等因。

卑府等伏查: 巡船三板舆貨船三板往来闗口斷難一一辨識。稽查之法惟論有無違禁夹带情獘,應請嗣後英吉利貨船進口後,如有送信三板往来,在内出者赴省城税館、黄埔税館報騐(yan 4) ;在外入者赴横檔税館報騐。騐明并無軍械私貨,由税館给舆照票知会。赴近師船炮台准予放行,不必禁阻。其有違禁夹带者照例阻止。

 

一前日有港脚船出口已得红牌,被師船放炮向擊,求定章程禁阻等因。

卑府等伏查:货船已領红牌自應放行,不可阻止。但该船已赴税館報明,税口亦應就近知會,炮台方知何船出口,以凴轉報。應請嗣後貨船領牌出口,由税口知會炮台弁兵可免岐悮。

 

一咪利坚國舆英吉利國不睦,所有英吉利貨船常被咪利坚在夷洋拿獲,其掠过貨物亦不容随便售賣等因。

卑府等伏查: 各國船隻来粤貿易,均有原領各國批照,可據是以船至萬山,湏用引水,看過船隻實有貨物,問明来歴,始赴澳門掛號。掛號後引至虎門報騐,方始引進黄埔。舊例相循已久。若騐明既係货船又有批照,另于舊例外别生枝莭,便易滋擾。非天朝懐柔逺人之意。應請仍照舊章辦理。至夷洋有無互相争執,内地無從查考。應無庸議,以上各欵均經卑職 福 龔面舆嘶噹咚等反覆剖辨,各夷目均属明白感激。相應據由轉禀聽侯批示。飭遵惟查中外貿易日久相安,既不可不申舊章,亦不可不因時調劑。卑府等管窺之見,尚有筹議事宜數條理合一併禀请:

 

憲台指示:

一英吉利夷商,禀贴准用漢文係爲俯順夷情,遇始方便起見,其有關陳奏事件應請仍用夷字以符體制。

一英吉利夷商,禀事密封交行商代逓,係指緊要事務。逕赴憲轅、督憲陳訴者而言,其尋常貿易事務,應請仍赴關部衙門就近呈逓。以昭畫一一各國夷商来粤貿易,統歸關部衙門經管。

其有交涉地方事務,在澳門者,歸澳門同知香山縣及縣丞經管;在黄埔者歸番禺縣及茭塘司巡檢、經管、立法最爲簡便。惟英吉利向有護貨之船,是以師船砲台亦湏随時查考。此次議定章程几出入三板船隻均赴税口掛號,由税口查明給予照票。如果该夷等約束嚴緊,應請飭知師船炮台以禮相待以示體恤。

一大班益花臣等在粤贸易,係受英吉利國王委任,其具禀大小事件舆内地辦公無異,斷無以私廢公之理。應請嗣後夷商禀事,但論其事之應禀不應禀,不問其船之開艙不開艙。即有遅延,亦係伊等自悮其事,毋庸查問。如此則浮言可息,夷情益覺寜貼。

一内地辦理犯法民人,本舆外夷無涉而以訛傳訛,最易煽惑。應請嗣後辦案,如有交涉外夷之處,必先有文書,飭行公司館查明,如無文書即不干外夷之事,该夷商等無湏詢問。卑府等爲绥靖外夷起見,謬議如斯是否有當理合一併禀。侯 憲台查核除禀

督憲暨  粮藩臬 憲外卑府健等謹禀

[1] Agents, usually Chinese

[2] That is, international waters, not territorial seas.

[3] Dinghy or small rowing boat.

 

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Abstract:

An  investigaton into a court case that merchants sold opium at high sea in the nineteenth year of Jiaqing reign (1814). Based on a statement from Chinese merchants:

In the third month, seventh month and eighth month in the nineteenth year of Jiaqing reign (1814), Chinese merchants Ningzuo Zhu,  Zhetang Zhu, Rongxi Chen and Mingyang Xu went to Marco and sold tea and textiles to the foreign merchant Andolini; in the seventh month of nineteenth years of Jiaqing reign, Xiuguan Xu went to Marco and sold sugar to  the foreign merchant Andolini. Andolini used pepper and preserved sea food to exchanged tea, textiles and sugar but still owed three thousand four hundred silver to Ningzuo Zhu, two thousand three hundred silver to Zhetang Zhu, twelve hundred silver to Mingyang Xu, and twelve hundred silver to Xiuguan Xu. Until the date of departure these Chinese merchants hadn’t received their unpaid money.

When they heard that the Andolini cargo ship would depart, they chased and stopped Andolini on high sea and asked for the unpaid money. Andolini didn’t have any silver but only could borrow opium from another cargo ship to pay his debt. Under this circumstance, those merchants accepted the opium and then sold it to other ships or cargo ships on the high sea and did not keep record buyer’s details. We decided to confiscate that money to government. Trade in opium is a serious criminal offence in China, thus these merchants should be locked in jail for a month and then sent to the frontier as soldiers.

Based on this case, we should send notification to all foreign companies; and ban Andolini’s business in China in future. If any foreign business smuggles opium into China there will be a serious charge penalty. In future, when foreign cargo arrives in China, custom should inquire for a list of goods. Only allow the ship to unload goods after checking and confirming the lists. In addition, we must clarify the system of reward and punishment required to regulate the law.

奏:爲查獲販賣鴉片烟人犯,審明定擬恭請聖鍳。事窃照前諭旨嚴拿鴉片烟私販。究办臣等因粤東地瀕洋海,番船雲集,难保無奸商牟利。囚販情事莭経会同海関監督。臣祥嚴?沿海地方文武及守口員弁慎密查拏旋。據香山縣馬德滋訪有奸商朱梅管等販賣鴉片烟坭等情具禀。臣等立即委員馳往会同該管各文武並守口員弁,拏獲朱梅官等十二名觧省審办。兹據委員廣州府知府楊健等審明,由按察和舜武定擬招觧前来,臣等當督同司道提齊各犯细加研鞫縁。現獲之朱梅官即朱作寕,籍隷順德舆同縣。現獲之朱哲堂及籍隷香山,現獲之鄭懷魁,籍隷潮州。之陳荣禧籍隷新会,之許鳴飬先後至香山縣属奥門地方開店貿易。朱梅官即朱作寕、朱哲堂、鄭懷魁、各由監生捐納州同職衔。陳荣禧、許鳴飬各捐監生向俱安分生理。嘉慶十九年三月十六日及七月二十五日,八月初四日,該犯朱梅官、朱哲堂、陳荣禧、許鳴飬各販茶葉布疋赴奥售賣。有西洋夷人安多利等以胡椒海参等貨舆該犯朱梅官等兑换茶布,除以货抵兑外,安多利商應找朱梅官番银三千四百八十員,朱哲堂番银二千三百員,陳荣禧番银一千二百二十員,許鳴飬番银三千四百員,又,鄭懷魁舆未獲。之徐舉業即徐秀官于嘉慶十九年七月十五日合運水糖等货至澳,亦經夷人安多利向買賒欠貨银一千二百員。屡討無還,安多利等是年九月底運载各貨囬國,船泊香山縣,属外洋。該犯朱梅官等闻信赶至安多利船内,逼索欠银。適有西洋不識姓名夷船駛到。安多利當向借银還欠,旋據覆称並無現银,只有鴉片烟坭,如可抵欠,情愿向借鴉片烟坭作银抵清欠項。朱梅官等因安多利即速囬國,慮及欠項無着,當各應允。安多利随給朱梅官鴉片烟坭八十個,每個約重贰斤七八兩,給朱哲堂六十個;給陳荣禧四十個。鄭懷魁、徐秀共四十個給許鳴飬八十個,抵清前欠。

 

朱梅官等因内地查拏巌緊不敢載入口岸,各在洋面將鴉片烟坭陸續賣去不識姓名人,過往船户。朱梅官共得價银三千八百四十員,陳荣禧共得價银一千三百二十員,许鳴飬共得價银三千五百員,各散。即經香山縣訪聞,禀經臣等暨海関監督臣祥等立飭委員,会同該官文武及守口員其弁拏獲各犯到案。訙悉前情,並究明現獲之蔡亜寬,戴亜寬,刘亜異,周亜保,林亜有受雇。在寄住澳門未獲之許寕官,卓開官,五丙官,紀申官,各店僱工許寕官等曾經販賣鴉片烟坭。伊等均属知情,並非同夥販賣。亦知鴉片未歷及販賣次数。又現獲之徐亜權,係販賣鴉片未獲之徐秀官胞弟。又現獲籍隸潮陽縣之李亜吕,係舆曾經販賣鴉片未獲之,紀開鳯店内借寓,均知販賣情事各等情。

 

臣等以鴉片一項流入内地,深為風俗,人心之害,屡經遵旨巌拏查禁,迄未尽絕根株該犯等。既經販賣,恐即係大夥私販,且所販亦不必止此数。其所供賣舆不識姓名過往船户,顯有狡餙廽護,其夷人安多利是否已囬國,亦當巌切根究。覆提朱梅官等五犯,連日遨訊出。㨿供,寔因夷人安多利拖欠貨賬未歸,即行囬國,伊等赶至外洋向索仍無現银,只有鴉片烟坭凖抵。如不允抵,貨本即無着落。是以不得不准其作抵,我等均係有本經紀,豈肯憑空販賣鴉片,做此犯法的事。故在洋面将鴉片烟坭零星賣给往来渔蛋船户,並未問詢姓名,寔在無憑供指。至夷人安多利实係欠艮久,已囬國。我等現已身犯重罪,屡蒙巌訊,何敢再有狥隐研鞠,再三矢口不移。案無貭餙,查例,載,囚販鴉片烟坭,照收買違禁貨物,例枷号一月發近邊充軍等語。

 

今該犯朱梅官等因夷人安多利拖欠貨價,以鴉片烟坭作抵,該犯等業已收受,轉售獲利,即舆囚犯無異。朱梅官即朱作寕、鄭懷魁、朱哲堂、陳荣禧、徐鳴飬應各革去之職員監生,均合照依囚販鴉片烟坭,枷号一月發近邊充軍。

 

現在欽奉諭旨,巌拏查禁,該犯胆敢收受鴉片烟坭?!圖利殊属?不畏法,應請發往新疆充當苦差,仍于犯事地方各枷号一个月,满日發遺以示惩儆。朱梅官、朱哲堂、鄭懷魁、各供親老丁单,但販賣鴉片情事較重,不准畄飬各犯所賣鴉片银两,照追充公。蔡亜寬、刘亜異、周亜保、林亜有,據供受僱曾經販賣鴉片之許寕管等,店内僱工並非同夥。許寕官等在外未獲,恐有避就應暫行監侯,嚴緝許寕管等獲日貭明另办,徐亜權係逸犯,徐秀官之胞弟應發縣押侯,勒交伊兄徐秀官到案,訊明分别究釋,李亜吕供:止係借寓紀開鳯店内,不知販賣情由,應地籍保釋。朱梅官等各捐照追繳咨銷,逸犯許寕官等飭緝務獲究治本案,甫經販賣即経香山縣訪聞会同文武委員及守口員弁拏獲觧究失察職名,免其查開夷人安多利現在囬國無慿提訊,惟該夷擅以違禁鴉片准折貨價实属有違天朝禁令。應飭在奥西洋番差傳知,該國王就近自行查办,不許該夷人獲利復来内地貿易。並责成在奥貿易各國大班番差嗣後如有夷商携带鴉片至内地售價者,立時呈首定行加予獎賞,倘敢携牟利,一經查出,即將扶同之人一併驅逐囬國。特以仰副,聖主中外一視同仁,彰善痹恶,大公之至意除錄全案供招咨部外所需審办,縁由謹合詞恭摺具奏,伏乞聖上睿監敕部核復施行。

 

奏再鴉片一項產自外夷,流入内地,而無頼之徒,私相買食,自残身命,迷而不晤,仰蒙聖主痌癏在抱屡飭沿海各省查究禁遏。臣等身任地方尤當实力奉行,以異稍紓宸厪,伏查粤東州縣瀕海者十居六七,而香山是属奥門地方,為西洋夷人賃居之所。向来西洋夷船赴别國販貨囬奥並不經関查騐,即將貨物運貯奥地,俟賣貨時方行報騐,納税難保無夹带,違禁之事。臣等舆海関监督。臣祥熟商。嗣後西洋船運貨到奥,先令将所販各貨開单报明海関,逐件查騐後始准卸載。仍俟售賣貨物納餉以符舊制而絶弊端。至鴉片,雖未自外夷其販賣,实由於漢奸。如果漢奸畏法,則鴉片豈惟無聞。今流弊已非一日,或地方文武能不脴而走,慮及從前失察處,分恐拏獲販賣匪徒到案。供出歷年舊案,是未受獲犯之功,先受失察之咎。瞻頋因循势所難免,非明立賞罰,無以鼓其氣。而堅其心。應請嗣後拏獲鴉片之案,如係本任失察,能将囚販首犯拏獲,並獲犯及半者免其議處。其前任之員,弁除得規,故縱仍照律办理。外如止失于覺察,准其减等,議處並非該管之員,弁能将隣境兵販首犯及鴉片一并拏獲,應許獲烟斤数給予紀錄一次,每千斤給予一級,以次第加,賞獲至五千斤以上者,准其送部。引見恭候钦定,若軍民人等能将人烟並獲送官,亦将所獲鴉片烟斤数酌以加賞,每烟一百斤賞银十两,次第加賞,即着落失察之地方賠繳,仍将失察職名咨部議處。倘地方官及管関守口員弁胆敢得,受陋規狥情,故縱立即提。恭拏問兵差人等,挟嫌誣拏即治以誣良為盗,此次議定條規,庶各知惩勸而查禁亦昭慎密矣。臣等管見所及謹附片陳明伏乞 訊示

 

SC1/3 – This document is in three sections.

Abstract

British warships entered internal Chinese waters triggering a series of investigations regarding foreign businesses in the Canton area. The local government, based on Jiaqing period law, rules that there are two issues pertaining to foreign business, which included architectural forms of foreign shops, and prohibiting all locals from contacting with or working for foreigners or foreign business without government approval.

Through his investigations, the local commander also found certain compradors, who represented the Chinese government, negotiated business with and borrowed funds from, foreign businesses.  Additionally, a number of compradors were not properly qualified to handle the position.  Of these compradors, Youdu Pan, whilst already retired, continued to received profit distributions as part of his income. The government ordered Youdu Pan to return to work to serve his country in this difficult time.

For security purposes, the local government also recorded George Thomas Staunton’s background including his contacts, length of stay, personal experiences and language skills. The local government also monitored Staunton’s social activities for security and safety purposes.

奏為密陳,夷商貿易情形及酌筹整飭洋行事宜恭摺奏請

聖訓:事窃照粤東省,地居瀕海,番舶雲集,各國夷商籍資貿易,以裕生計。其所以仰沭:

皇仁者至,優橪渥談。夷商等因远涉重洋,每貨船十数隻,有兵船一二隻,護送抵粤後俱泊外洋。由該国通事报明,澳門同知飭令内地熟悉沙線民人,将貨船引带,由虎門海口駛入,黄埔内港。湾泊納税售貨,其兵船仍泊外洋。俟貿易事竣,貨船出口,該兵船仍護送回國。是於懷柔之中,仍寓防閑之意。立法原爲妥善溯查貿易各國,有佛蘭西、荷蘭、吕宋、米利坚、英吉利、甚波立、瑞國、連國等處。貨船每年多寡不齊,自嘉慶七年以後各國船隻稀少,惟英吉利國祖家船港脚船,米利坚國船爲多,此外祗吕宋國間有船一二隻来粤。

 

近聞,英吉利舆米利坚彼此搆釁(xin 1) 時相刮奪貨財,此係洋商傳聞之詞,且事在夷洋不值過問。本年夏間,有米利坚國貨船一隻進口,随有英吉利國罷盡仁兵船随带之,小快船卸尾,駛進経守口,員弁登時将該船逐出外洋。

 

臣等當飭洋商通事,嚴詰(jie 2)英吉利大班益花臣因何不行约束?令其切寔禀覆。旋因英吉利及米利坚國時有貨船駛至,而英吉利之護貨兵船雖不敢駛入内洋,時至虎門外海口往来逰奕,屡経驅逐,倏去倏 ( shu1)来,情形詭譎(jue 4),必湏示之以威。臣等當即,就近調齊中路巡洋舟,帥排列虎門海口,檄令提標,中軍参将吴紹麟等督率各偹弁申明號令,整肃隊伍,連環操演鎗砲,以壮聲威。一靣傳檄辦事明幹之佛岡同知,福蔭長偕同香山縣知縣馬德滋,親赴奥門。飭傳該大班益花臣面加詰責。據通事譯:據该大班禀称,寔因米利坚曾在外洋搶過該國貨船,挟有仇隙。希圖棄間报復等語。

 

臣等復飭該委員等,諭以:該二國在海外有無蛮觸,一面之詞不足深究。兹既駛至内地洋靣,即應凛遵天朝禁令。何得妄思报復?應速飭令該國兵船遠泊外洋,等候貨船護送回國。如敢不遵不但将該兵船立時繫沉,定當奏明大皇帝停止該國貿易。若米利坚國兵船有違功令亦應一体照辦。天朝大公無私,並不稍存偏護,亦不能稍爲姑息等諭。

 

該大班随即递禀谢罪,其罷盡仁兵船旋已揚帆回國,尚有護送貨物兵船二隻,俱在外洋。往年湾泊地方,现在各夷商照舊貿易安貼如常。臣等訪淂南洋諸夷以英吉利爲最强,而并非富饒。爲籍貿易爲資生之計,其貨物不到内地,亦别無消售之處。且呢羽锺表,中華儘可不需,茶葉土丝,彼國断不可少。是其不能不仰給于貿易者。其理易明,惟是懷柔,駕馭必當杜,漸防微粤民趋利,若騖首在查禁漢奸。近年,如私借夷人資本及拖欠夷债之鄭崇謙、吴士琼、沭士芳等均照例惩辦。现復訪,有曾爲夷人服役,積有家產,朦捐職銜,仍舆夷人交結之李耀即李懷遠一名,業経拏獲、查抄、審明。定擬具奏在案。臣等仍督飭地方官,蜜加偵訪,如有似此者,均應逐一嚴惩。並不准民人私爲夷人服役。责成洋行通事稽查其住居。奥門及省城十三行之貿易民人不淂搭盖夷式房屋、即售賣夷人衣履、户舖户亦不淂用夷字店號,以杜勾通而嚴區别。向来兵船護送貨船来粤,貨船自行進口,兵船即駛往伶仃潭仔洋靣停泊。嘉庆十四年原奏,但称不許進十字門及虎門各海口。语涉籠統,嗣後應仍其旧,不淂駛近内洋,不准于所護貨船出口之後復有逗遛。致于軀逐至設立洋商令其互相貿易,即藉以稽察夷情。必需身家殷寔,辦事明妥者交易始能公平,不欠夷人私债,庶不致夷人所轻視。

 

迩来充當洋商者共有十人,寔在或貲(zi1)財素裕者,不過三四家,其餘雖皆有同啇互保承允,而本非殷寔。不過圖淂行規,承充後又不善経理,無處揭借,不能不欠夷人之賬。既有夷賬,即不能賒客啇之貨,以抵還夷人。迨至積欠愈多不敷挪拖,爲夷啇所挟制。是以評估貨價,不淂其平内地客啇轉受虧折之累。若俟該疲行,陸續乏敗時再行清理,恐有積重難追之势。向例貨船出口,海関、監督衙門,發給印照回國。即取有夷人两無蒂欠,夷字甘結存案。此字竟成故套难以凴信。臣等再四熟啇俟,冬春交易事畢,派委明幹大員,督飭總啇伍敦元、盧棣華確查各啇移欠夷賬多寡,如為数有限,易于歸結者,勒限清完,准其承充外,倘拖欠過多,不肯據寔供吐,即應奏明斥革,将承办貿易行規,归于殷啇分办。仍照向办章程查抄变抵不敷之数,令衆啇按服摊逺。现在各啇已有代逺之。疑應俟摊完後,分年續摊,並飭此後不淂濫保身家浅薄之人,違者一体治罪。如此則夷人不能抬價,居可以挟制洋行,洋行亦不敢低估侵欺,以拖累啇賈。且夷賬既已清釐,每年貨船回國即有未售完之貸,可交往奥大班等料理,或酌留数人亦属無多。仍巖禁内地民人不准私往夷馆。庶立法益臻周密而敝端,可期剔除于防边柔逺之道,两無妨碍。容俟查明洋啇底蘊再行分别,奏办外所有夷啇寔在情形及酌筹办理。縁由臣等謹合詞恭摺密奏,伏乞皇上鋻訓示謹奏。

 

奏為遵旨查明覄奏仰祈

聖鋻事嘉慶二十年正月初八日接准军纪大臣字寄钦奉

上諭:蒋等奏密陳,夷商贸易情形及酌筹整飭洋行事宜一摺。所办俱是前日因聞,該省有英吉利兵船攔入内地,及乏商積欠夷賬等情。降旨詢問,今日蒋等摺内已将各情形詳悉偹陳。惟斯当咚一莭未據奏及。着蒋遵照昨降諭旨密行查察。斯当咚自幼狡黠,熟悉内地情形。如在澳門不甚妥恊,断不可軀令归國。應摘要過,酌量遷徒,防閑庶,為處置淂宜。钦此

 

查此案,先奉諭旨,近聞英吉利夷人斯当咚前于該國入貢時曾随入京師,年幼狡黠,回國時将沿途山川形势俱一二繪成圖册。到粤後又不回本國,留住奥門已二十年,通暁漢语。定例奥門所住夷人不准進省。斯当咚因松筠前曾伴送該國夷使,于松筠任两廣總督時,遂来省禀见。及蒋到任後,斯当咚亦復来省。経蒋斥回来未見。斯当咚在粤,既以英吉利夷人来粤者,大率聽其教誘,日久恐致滋生事端。著蒋等查明斯当咚在粤有無教唆勾通,疑蹟如查有寔,據或迁徒安置,奏明妥办等因。钦此。

仰見我皇上怀柔震叠,杜漸防微之至意。臣等當即密飭洋行總商,伍敦元,盧棣華等確切查覆,兹據覆称查淂:英吉利夷人斯当咚,曾于乾隆五十七年随同伊父貢使,航海由天津入都進貢。彼時該夷斯当咚年僅十二三歳。其貢船即于是年仍由海道回粤。貢使人等由内河回粤,乘坐原船归國。迨嘉庆四年,該夷斯当咚復来粤貿易,因向来各國夷船貿易事畢,届囬帆時、或貨物未能售完、或賬目當未清結,酌留数人在澳守候,名爲押冬。是年斯当咚即在澳押冬至六年回國,又于九年来澳押冬至十二年回國,又于十五年来澳押冬至十六年回國,又于十九年由該國派令来澳充當三班,随同大班,二班,経理貿事務。盖大班二班三班,係由該國派来專司買賣貨物。諸事由大班経管,二班三班僅係拹同襄理之人。各国住澳夷商,于貨船到齊時,禀請海関监督衙門發給牌照。進省貿易事竣,仍請牌照回奥。其人数什物填註牌内,往来皆可,稽查至夷商来省交易在城外十三行居住,不准一人入城,如遇督撫新任,有由洋商通事转禀,請見者歷任督撫或見或不見,並無一定。即或傳見,均于大堂率同司道宣布皇仁諭令,公平貿易,從無私謁之事,该夷司当咚粗通漢語,兼識漢字。平日並不諳繪畫。凡外夷在粤貿易多年能通漢話,識漢字者亦不止斯当咚一人,該夷斯当咚前後在澳数年尚無不妥,亦無教唆勾通疑蹟等情。誠恐該行商所禀或有狥飾復飭。

 

南海香山两縣就近切寔密查,並由臣禅覄加細訪,均與行商伍敦元等所禀情形相同。

臣等伏查:夷人赋性不無狡黠熟航海遠来,志在懋迁獲利。如無内地奸匪串通教誘,断不敢别滋事端。而行商果皆妥寔交易两淂,其平奸民自無可乘之隙。現経再四確查,斯当咚尚無教唆勾通。疑蹟應請母庸查办。臣等仍督飭地方官及行商人等密訪與夷人交結来往之漢奸,查出一案,即巌办一案。倘斯当咚續有勾通疑蹟亦即妥恊筹計。

 

請旨办理縂期,崇中外之体,粛華夷之防,示之以法,巌馭之以信,義俾免疑慮。而凛聲威以仰,副我聖主力谨念海疆諄諄訓誨之至意。除委員督飭洋行縂商,確查私欠夷賬之乏商分别筹議妥办,另摺具奏外所有查明斯当咚現無教唆勾通疑蹟緣由謹合詞恭摺附馹覄奏,伏乞皇上睿鍳訓示,謹奏。

 

奏再各国夷商来粤貿易,俱係賃居洋商所建夷舘,不許私賃民房居住。以杜交通私弊。兹查有退商同文行潘致祥即潘有度,向置夷馆三所,共值價銀五萬餘两。自退商後僅與現商麗泉行潘長耀寫立定帖收银一萬二千餘两,並未立契,每年夷馆租息仍係潘致祥家收用,该退商即非現商,即不應與夷人交涉,且其身家素称殷寔,洋務最為熟練,為夷人及内地商民所信服。從前退商本属取巧,現當洋行疲数之時,何淂任其置身事外,私享厚利?應飭令仍充洋商。即令同縂商伍敦元等清理一切,如果寔心筹办,行務漸有起色,其数年来所收夷馆租息應請從寛免其追缴,至潘長耀已交定銀,聼其自行清理。俾各殷寔商人不敢效尤,告退以杜規避。臣等謹附片具,奏請旨施行,謹奏。

 

嘉慶十九年十月十九日具奏,二十年正月初八日奉到:

硃批:旁批,中華儘可不需。句旁;

硃批:是又均應逐一巌惩。句旁;

硃批:甚是;又硃批:另有旨,钦此。又夹片奉

硃批:另有旨,钦此。同日承准。

軍机大臣字寄两廣縂督蒋 廣東巡撫董

 

嘉慶十九年十二月初二奉上谕,蒋等奏密陳夷商貿易情形及酌筹整飭洋行事宜。一摺所办俱是粤省地方濒海向准各國夷船前来贸易,該夷商遠涉重洋懋迁有無,天朝体恤之恩燕,怀柔之中仍應隐寓防閑之意。近来英吉利國護貨兵船,不遵定制,停泊外洋。竟敢駛至虎門,其詭詐情形甚爲叵測。蒋示以兵威,派員請责。該大班始遞禀谢罪,此後不可不巌申禁令。該夷船所販貨物全藉内地銷售,如呢羽鐘表等物,中華儘可不需。而茶葉土絲,彼國断不可少。倘一經停止貿易,則其生计立窮。書云:不寳遠物,則遠人格。該督等當深明此意,謹守定制,内固藩籬,不可使外夷輕視。嗣後所有各國護貨兵船仍遵旧例,不許駛近内洋,貨船出口亦不許逗遛。如敢攔入禁地,即巌加驅逐,倘敢抗拒,即行施放鎗砲,慑以兵威,使知畏惧。至洋商舆外番交易,必湏示以公平,並當巌杜交結,該督等将拖欠夷债及舆夷人交結各商民分别惩處。自應如此办理,所有該督等請巌禁民人私爲夷人服役,及洋行不淂搭盖夷式房屋,铺户不淂用夷字。店号及清查商欠,不淂滥保身家浅薄之承充洋商,並不准内地民人私往夷馆之處,均照所議行。其退商潘致祥以充洋商。家道殷寔。從前朦混請退本属取巧,現當洋行疲敝之時豈容任其置身事外?!着责令仍充洋商舆各縂商認真清理一切,毋狡卸。

 

前日因聞該省有英吉利兵船攔入内洋,及乏商積欠夷賬等情,降旨詢問該督等。今日蒋等摺内已将各情形詳悉偹陳惟斯当咚一莭未據奏,及着蒋遵照昨降諭旨密行查。察斯当咚自幼狡黠,熟知内地情形如在奥門不甚妥恊,断不可驅令归國。應摘其過失,酌量迁徙他處,防閑约束庶爲處置淂宜,也将此諭令知之。钦此遵旨寄信前来。

 

疲敝之秋,豈容置身事外?仍属令其復充洋行俾得認真清理,一切毋得狡卸。憲諭查有潘致祥現已兄弟分產,兹復充洋行,着飭令其合產公辦,俾得恊力同心上報??下保家產可也。上諭,查:斯当咚爲人狡点,前進貢出京時繪畵内地山川刑势,且在粤二十餘年,悉?唐文漢語。該督摺内並不提起,着令巌细查明,有無?諞情節如有劣蹟該督當妥議另徒居别處,不得令其歸本國于公事便中爲妥恊也。

 

督憲蒋大人近日洋商每有欠負夷人賬目,幾經滋事。前曾具奏告退同文行商人潘致祥身家殷實,夷人均各信服,恳请飭令照承克己奉諭旨令該商縂辦兹潘致祥具禀将同文改爲同孚行侯给牌遵辦。

一所有洋貨铺户不許冩鬼子招牌

一所有唐人屋宇俱不許盖如番鬼屋檏

一諭其退商潘致祥從前朦混告退本属取巧兹當洋商

 

 

敬禀者案照英吉利大班益花臣等禀求,委員代禀一案,業經卑府等會同具禀:

憲鍳在案兹據三班斯当咚等面禀伊等,大班前禀詢問李耀一犯未想牵連自己,祗怕有傷國家名聲,因此再敢禀求施恩批示等。因卑府等伏查,該夷商等来粤貿易均受伊國王委任,詎伊經管貨船舆内地辦公無異,其具禀大小事件断無以私癈公。是以卑府等筹議禀内逐疑聲明聽侯批示。飭遵兹據該夷商等禀稱李耀犯案之意袛爲十七年順带禮物有傷國家聲名,求将李耀犯案原委飭知並無他意。應否俯念該夷商等遠隔重洋向来辨事,尚属謹慎,小心施恩給諭,俾遠人感德、鼓舞、歡欣、盡心束約,夷衆恪謹辨公之處理,合着情轉禀,一具督憲。